Wednesday, September 2, 2020
The chance to apply for a pro obligation in supporting proficiency advancement has emerged in your instructive condition. For your meeting you have been approached to get ready data to show that you can: Proficiency implies the capacity to peruse and compose. Recently has the word Ã¢â¬ËliteracyÃ¢â¬â¢ been applied as the authoritative term for perusing and composing, for the most part since the presentation of the National Literacy Strategy in schools. The abilities of perusing and composing supplement one another and grow together, it in this manner bodes well to utilize the term Ã¢â¬ËliteracyÃ¢â¬â¢. Perusing and composing are types of correspondence dependent on the communicated in language. Compelling talking and listening abilities are fundamental so as to create proficiency aptitudes. The movement of education abilities is a fundamental part of improvement and learning. Without the capacity to peruse, compose and listen kids and youngsters will be unable to work viably in school, school, college or at work or speak with others about their thoughts and take an interest completely and securely in the network. Proficiency empowers kids and youngsters to communicate imaginatively and profitably. Most of employments and professions depend on a component of essential proficiency (and numeracy) abilities. Education is required in our regular day to day existences, to protect us by having the option to understand signs and adhere to guidelines, read headings, understanding papers, plans, food marks, managing family funds. Education additionally empowers us to advance with innovation by being capable use PCs capability, riding the web and having the option to peruse and compose messages. As the core of all learning lies the two key aptitudes, education and numeracy. Proficiency is perhaps the more significant of the two abilities as youngsters and youngsters need education so as to get to advance educational plan regions, e.g so as to move toward a numeracy issue, the inquiry should be perused andÃ¢ understood before the appropriate response can start to be found. The advancement of education is significant since the beginning for all kids and youngsters. As Teaching Assistants almost certainly, we will be supporting youngsters and youngsters with correspondence troubles or other Special Educational Needs which could affect their proficiency aptitudes, a circumstance may likewise emerge where English isn't the primary language. It is significant that kids and youngsters are urged to investigate the manner in which the English language works, e.g phonics for jargon, perusing, composing and spelling. This will empower kids and youngsters to pick up information to have the option to peruse, compose and spell certainly. The learning destinations are related to 12 strands in education to show movement in each strand. The strands are as per the following:- Speak and tune in for a wide scope of purposes in various settings 1. Talking 2. Tuning in and reacting 3. Gathering conversation and connection 4. Show Peruse and compose for a scope of purposes on paper and on screen 5. Word acknowledgment: translating (perusing) and encoding (spelling) 6. Word Structure and spelling 7. Comprehension and deciphering writings 8. Drawing in and reacting to messages 9. Making and forming writings 10. Text structure and association 11. Sentence structure and accentuation 12. Introduction Inside my setting we intend to energize youngsters and youngsters to be capable peruse and compose with certainty, familiarity and comprehension, to have the option to organize a full scope of understanding signals (phonic, realistic, syntactic, relevant) to screen their peruse and have the option to address their own slip-ups. To comprehend the sound and spelling framework and utilize this to peruse and spell precisely, have familiar, readable and cursive penmanship. To have an enthusiasm for words and their implications and a developing jargon. To know, comprehend and have the option to compose various sorts in fiction and poetry,Ã¢ understand and be comfortable with a portion of the manners by which stories are organized through fundamental education thoughts of setting, character and plot. The capacity to get, utilize and have the option to compose a scope of verifiable writings, plan, draft, amend and alter their own composition, have an appropriate specialized jargon through wh ich to comprehend and talk about their perusing and composing. Youngsters are urged to be keen on books, read with happiness and assess and legitimize their inclinations. Build up their own forces of creative mind, imagination and basic mindfulness through perusing and composing. In the Foundation Stage (Nursery and Reception) Ã¢â¬ Children and youngsters ought to be allowed the chance to talk, tune in and speak to thoughts in their exercises. Use correspondence, language and English in all aspects of the educational plan and to become submerged in a domain wealthy in print and opportunities for correspondence. All Key Stage 1 (Years 1 and 2) Ã¢â¬ Children and youngsters ought to figure out how to talk unhesitatingly and tune in to what others need to state. They should start to peruse and compose freely (utilizing phonic information) and with eagerness. They ought to utilize language to investigate their own encounters and fanciful words. All Key Stage 2 (Years 3-6) Ã¢â¬ Children and youngsters ought to figure out how to change the manner in which they talk and write to suit fitting circumstances, purposes and crowds. They should peruse a scope of writings and react to various layers of significance in them. They ought to investigate the utilization of language in abstract and non-artistic messages and figure out how the structure of language functions. Intercession bunches are offered in talking, perusing, composing and tuning in to those kids and youngsters who are under-achieving and supporter bunches for the more capable. Where the students execution is essentially beneath normal we will look for master arrangement, for example, language training, EAL projects and perusing recuperation will be gotten to varying. In Key stages 1 and 2, English meetings utilize the National Strategy unit designs (our own forms) concentrating on shared perusing, shared and guided composition and creating supported results. Further exercises are additionally utilized for centered exercises in phonics, guided perusing and appreciation. In Key Stage 1 there is a day by day phonics meeting, day by day guided perusing and English exercise. There is one discrete penmanship meeting every week. What's more, there is additionally an opening utilized for the improvement of talking and tuning in and the class story. In lower Key Stage 2 there is likewise a day by day phonics meeting, four guided understanding meetings and a dailyÃ English exercise. There is one discrete penmanship meeting each fortnight. Furthermore there is likewise a space utilized for the improvement of talking and tuning in and the class story. In upper Key Stage 2 there is a day by day phonics/spelling meeting, four guided understanding meetings and a day by day English exercise. There is one discrete penmanship meeting each fortnight. Extra there is a space utilized for the advancement of talking and tuning in and the class story. The observing and assessment of the English approach is the obligation of the English co-ordinator who is dependable to the head instructor and the governors for the improvement of English all through the school. This is to be accomplished in an assortment of ways: Regular conversations with staff concerning the advancement of gatherings and people Involvement in long and medium term arranging over the school in English Regular study hall perception and working nearby partners to help recognize qualities and shortcomings, to offer help to singular staff where proper Regular observing of assets, arranging and childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s work Reviewing of appraisal results and information to assess the nature of learning in English all through the school. Watching that inside a key stage there is inclusion of the full English educational plan in accordance with national educational plan necessities, the early learning objectives and current National Primary Framework targets (where utilized) Checking that fitting chances to raise multicultural and sexual orientation issues are made and taken Ensure that the time spent on the instructing of English is meeting our understudies needsÃ Literacy Lessons are a similar time every day, in the wake of morning break time. They are separated into phonics and spelling, guided perusing and English. The exercise begins at 10.45 and completes at 12.30pm. The youngsters start by get-together on the floor covering zone to be given an outline of what's going on in the dayÃ¢â¬â¢s exercise. As a Teaching Assistant a conversation would have occurred with the Class Teacher preceding the exercise occurring to set up the exercise plan and what is anticipated from you for the exercise. Some Teaching Assistants may have been engaged with components of arranging an exercise and ready to give their own thoughts concerning how is the most ideal approach to complete exercises. It might be that you work with an assigned gathering of youngsters who have improvement issues and require more consideration. It is significant thatÃ¢ the Teaching Assistant cooperates with the class instruct to screen the advancement of students in every aspect of education improvement. This will typically guarantee that the kids and youngsters are engaged and ready to meet the learning destinations. A few understudies will require more support to take part than others using acclaim and input, while recognizing any worries or issues they may have. Observing of the kids and youngsters likewise includes the transferring of data to the Class Teacher in regard of learning targets and input with respect to how the undertakings were overseen and how to accomplish their objectives going advances. We likewise do intercession exercises in my setting where a gathering of kids are removed from the exercise by a Teaching Assistant to complete some extra education exercises to focus on errands, for example, hints of letter gatherings, understanding meetings and fundamental spellings to help improve their proficiency advancement. There are additionally gatherings of kids who are taken
Posted by Maurice Hightower at 3:58 PM
Saturday, August 22, 2020
Global advertising - Essay Example The Arab food ay accentuation on the accompanying things, for example, sheep and chicken readiness in the meat items, dairy items essentially comprise of spread, yogurt, white cheddar and cream, herbs and flavors that are fundamentally utilized are a blend of mint and thyme known as zaÃ¢â¬â¢atar, different flavors incorporate saffron, sesame, cumin, garlic, cinnamon, sumac, lentils involve chickpeas and favabeans, and most mainstream dressings of such cooking styles contain olive oil, parsley, mint, and so forth. The organization that is getting ready for its item dispatch in the global market is Al Qasr that is one of the renowned names in Arabic cooking styles and the eatery network is known for its Arabian delights, wide scope of deserts and canapÃ©s, and Lebanese food. Al Qasr has been working in Arabic locales for a long time and meets the customer tastes and inclinations through its creative dishes with customary flavors. US as the objective market for the organization offers extraordinary open door as the political conditions are steady of the nation and even the buyer showcase has high discretionary cashflow and expectations for everyday comforts. The interest is high in this market for Arabic foods as a result of its flavors and assortment. Numerous organizations have put resources into this market as a result of its stable natural elements and accessibility of crude materials, capital and work. The objective market for the Arabic cooking styles to be propelled by the organization would be upper center pay and higher pay bunch who like to eat at eateries generally in ends of the week. The other segment factors contain age and for this particular cooking the age gathering would be over 25 years who wants to evaluate various foods separated from the inexpensive food which are commonly progressively favored by the youthful age under 20 years. Rivalry is intense in the US advertise as it a center point for some, organizations serving various cooking styles, for example, European
Posted by Maurice Hightower at 10:21 PM
I am going to describe the teachings and beliefs of Hinduism about death and what might happen afterwards Essay Example
I will depict the lessons and convictions of Hinduism about death and what may happen a short time later Essay Hindus accept that when you bite the dust, your spirit lives on and you are reawakened as something different. They accept that Atman (your spirit) lives on always in any event, when you kick the bucket, and is moved to something different. This is supported up by a statement which can be found in the Bhagavad Gita. This spirit dwelling in the groups of all can never be killed; subsequently it doesn't benefit you to lament for anyone Bhagavad Gita 2:30 The statement is alluding to Atman saying that it can never be slaughtered and wont leave. Hindus think something many refer to as re-manifestation happens. Re-manifestation is the resurrection of a spirit into another body. For instance when somebody kicks the bucket there soul would leave there body and enter somebody elses. We will compose a custom paper test on I will portray the lessons and convictions of Hinduism about death and what may happen a while later explicitly for you for just $16.38 $13.9/page Request now We will compose a custom article test on I will depict the lessons and convictions of Hinduism about death and what may happen a short time later explicitly for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Recruit Writer We will compose a custom paper test on I will portray the lessons and convictions of Hinduism about death and what may happen thereafter explicitly for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Recruit Writer The passing of him who is conceived is sure; and the resurrection of him who is dead is inescapable. Bhagavad Gita 2:27 This statement is stating that the individual will kick the bucket and will be renewed; this demonstrates what Hindus accept about re-manifestation. Hindus accept that what occurs in this life, influences what will befall them in their next life. This is known as Karma. In the event that they do beneficial things, they will get compensations in their next life and on the off chance that they do terrible things, they will be rebuffed in their next life and could be renewed into a poor family or they could be brought into the world with a handicap. This thought is sponsored up by the statement: The world can't remain alive for a solitary second without yajna. Yajna implies a demonstration coordinated to the government assistance of others, managed without craving any arrival for it Gandhi The statement shows getting great Karma, satisfying wants and heading towards a more promising time to come. Samsara is the pattern of a spirit being passed starting with one body then onto the next. This can likewise be sponsored up from the statement As a man takes off destroyed garments, and puts on new ones, moreover the atman pushes off destroyed bodies and goes into others which are new Bhagavad Gita 2:22 This is contrasting the pattern of Samsara with us changing our old garments and putting on new ones (like a cycle). Hindus have confidence in Moksha. Moksha is the point at which an Atman is discharged and turns out to be a piece of God. It is viewed as the most elevated motivation behind life. Lead me from the stunning to the genuine, from the murkiness to the light, from death to interminability Brihadaranyaka 1:3:28 The statement is taken from a petition and is looking at being lead from one thing into the other and into everlasting status. This speaks to Moksha on the grounds that it is looking at being lead into everlasting status which is viewed as perhaps the most elevated point throughout everyday life. The entirety of the words referenced (Atman, Samsara, Karma, Moksha and Re-manifestation) interface together. They are completely identified with the passing of somebody and how their life can influence what occurs after their demise (existence in the wake of death). Here I am going to discuss how Hindus convictions about life following death can influence the manner by which they decide to live their lives. Re-manifestation is the resurrection of a spirit into another body. It can impact what Hindus do in their lives since they won't be frightened of death, they won't be as dismal when somebody kicks the bucket since they realize the individual will be renewed and they think about every life on earth to create them self more and in the end reach Moksha. Atman is an enternal soul which lives on perpetually, in any event, when the individual bites the dust. Atman can influence the manner in which Hindus live their lives in light of the fact that at a memorial service they don't consider the to be as significant and in this manner dispose of it, they center around the spirit proceeding onward to another body, and being renewed. Karma influences what you are reawakened as, on the off chance that you do beneficial things you get renewed with remunera tions, on the off chance that you do awful things you are reawakened with disciplines. The world can't remain alive for a solitary second without yajna. Yajna implies a demonstration coordinated to the government assistance of others, managed without craving any arrival for it Gandhi This clearly influences the manner in which Hindus live their lives since they need to get great Karma. They can accomplish that by going to God, being thoughtful to others and different things that will profit themselves as well as others too. It additionally implies that most Hindus won't perpetrate wrongdoing, since they will be rebuffed in a later life. In Hindu memorial services the body isn't significant so they consume it on a burial service fire. This represents the arrival of the soul and the blazes themselves speak to the nearness of the God Brahma who is the maker God. The primary viewpoint is the arrival of the Atman, and liberating it so it very well may be reawakened. Ceremonies occur to enable the spirit to proceed on its excursion. They are as a very remarkable festival as they are a recognition administration. Ghandi is one of the most respected Hindus on the planet. He is renowned for his peaceful fights against preference in South Africa, and British Rule in India. Ghandi is a case of a Hindu who follows their convictions; he doesnt use brutality and has a great deal of strict resilience. He showed individuals how to utilize a turning haggle them into better individuals. He doesnt get things done for himself however to support others, he endures so others can live better lives. Everybody ought to make an incredible most and disregard what may occur straightaway I feel that a Hindu would differ with this announcement since they accept that what occurs in this life can influence their next. They think about their next life as significant. They would need to make an amazing most, yet appreciate it by doing beneficial things so they can get great karma and be renewed with remunerations in their next life. I feel that an Atheist would concur with the announcement since they don't have confidence in Re-manifestation, they dont put stock in God. They feel individuals ought to have the option to do anything they desire with no outcomes and not be affected by religion. Christians would in part concur and differ on the grounds that they have faith in paradise and hellfire and need to go to paradise after their demise. Anyway they don't accept that there is an existence in the wake of death and they dont trust you will be renewed. Actually I would concur with the announcement since I dont put stock in re-manifestation. I figure individuals ought to appreciate existence without stressing what may occur straightaway. Anyway I concur with Hindus to a degree since I still dont figure individuals ought to have the option to carry out violations and not get rebuffed for them. They should simply be rebuffed in a similar life not the following as I feel it is a new beginning.
Posted by Maurice Hightower at 4:14 PM
Friday, August 21, 2020
David Myers unrivaled, Scott Sullivan, requested that he make the bogus bookkeeping passages in Worlds Accounting records lessen Myers obligation regarding his ill-advised lead? Guard your answer. I dont think David Myers obligation regarding ill-advised direct decreases even he is asked by his boss, Scott Sullivan. Scott Sullivan has his own misrepresentation since he concurred and obliges bogus bookkeeping sections that in the end become some portion of a 11 billion fraud.Scott will get his discipline by what he did. In any case, on David Myers side, he realized it wasn't right to do this and he didn't decline to do it. There was an alternative he could pick, either to can't or acknowledge, and he decides to acknowledge to make the bogus bookkeeping sections. In the mid year of 2001, David acknowledged there was no limit to the companys troubles. He became discouraged and considered stopping, yet he was worried about the possibility that that the outrage would tail him on account of what he had just done. We will compose a custom article test on David Myers or then again any comparative theme explicitly for you Don't WasteYour Time Recruit WRITER Just 13.90/page In general, I rear Davits duty ought not be lessened in light of the fact that he was asked by somebody. 2. What discipline, If any, do you trust David Myers ought to have been given for his job in the Workroom misrepresentation? On the off chance that David Myers didn't go to FBI, however continue concealing his misrepresentation of what he did in Worlds, he ought to get disciplines, such as going to Jail for a considerable length of time and fines. However, he Is continuing doing beneficial things like, chipping in as an accountant at their congregation and took a shot at an antiquarianism burrow nearby.Is it fitting for government law requirement specialists to make a model 3. Of Individuals engaged with prominent money related fakes, for example, Workroom and Enron? Clarify. I think It is proper for government law requirement specialists to make instances of Individuals without saying her/his genuine name. What occurs In Enron Is actually a major thing that all the individuals think about It, and It likewise gives individuals the models disciplines and aftereffect of doing money rel ated fakes.
Posted by Maurice Hightower at 8:03 PM
Motivations to Study and Get a Degree in Economics Financial matters has a notoriety (however not among market analysts!) as a to some degree dry theme. Its aÃ¢ generalization that is off-base in a few different ways. Most importantly, financial aspects isnt a solitary point, but instead numerous subjects. Its a methodology that fits a wide range of fields, from microeconomics to modern association, government, econometrics, game hypothesis and many different fields. You may not appreciate a portion of these fields, yet on the off chance that you are entranced by the multifaceted nature of private enterprise and might want to see better how things work in an entrepreneur society, youll most likely find at any rate one of these territories that youll truly appreciate. Marvelous Job Opportunities for Economics Graduates There are numerous open doors for financial aspects graduates. You are not ensured a decent paying activity with a financial matters degree, however your odds are higher than in numerous different projects. With a financial aspects degree, you can work in a wide range of fields from account and banking to open strategy, deals and advertising, common help (government offices, the Federal Reserve, and so forth.), protection and actuarial work. You can likewise proceed to do additionally concentrates in financial aspects, political theory, business, or an assortment of different fields. On the off chance that youre certain your advantage is in the business world, a business degree may likewise be a solid match, however a financial aspects degree opens a great deal of entryways. Financial aspects Knowledge Is Useful at a Personal Level While seeking after a degree in financial aspects, youll get familiar with a great deal of aptitudes and information that you can apply to different occupations or to your own life. Finding out about loan costs, trade rates, monetary pointers and value markets can assist you with settling on better choices about contributing and getting contracts. As PCs become increasingly more significant in both our business and private lives, having the option to utilize information brilliantly gives you a huge bit of leeway over people with less aptitudes who settle on a great deal of choices without much forethought. Financial experts Understand Unintended Consequences Financial aspects shows understudies how to comprehend and spot auxiliary impacts and conceivable unintended results. Most financial aspects issues have optional impacts - the deadweight misfortune from tax assessment is one such auxiliary impact. An administration makes an assessment to pay for some required social program, however on the off chance that the tax collection is reckless created, an optional impact of that expense might be that it changes people groups conduct, making monetary development moderate. By studying financial aspects and taking a shot at several financial matters issues, you will figure out how to spot auxiliary impacts and unintended results in different regions. This can assist you with settling on better choices about your own life and make you increasingly significant to business; what are the conceivable optional impacts from the proposed promoting effort? It likely wont assist you with finding a new line of work, however having the option to spot and c omprehend the significance of auxiliary impacts, may assist you with keeping a vocation or procure an advancement that a lot quicker. Financial aspects Provides an Understanding of How the World Works You will study how the world functions. You will become familiar with the effect choices have on explicit firms, whole enterprises, and on a national level. You will become familiar with the effect of worldwide exchange, both great and awful. You will find the impact government strategies have on the economy and on business; again both great and terrible. It will assist you with settling on progressively educated choices as both a shopper and as a voter. The nation needs better-educated government officials. Financial matters is an excellent method for improving open part execution andÃ Economics gives all of us the apparatuses to consider things all the more obviously and to comprehend the ramifications of suspicions we might be making.
Posted by Maurice Hightower at 1:56 PM
Saturday, June 27, 2020
Particulate Matter (PM or Atmospheric Aerosol) Pollution What is Particulate Matter? Particulate matter (PM) or aerosols, most ranging from between 2.5 and 10 micrometers in diameter, have many sources and can be anthropogenic or naturally occurring. Some examples include marine aerosols like salt, mineral dust from agricultural practices, biological particles such as microorganisms and their spores and pollen, wood combustion for residential heating, and transport-related aerosols (Fuzzi et al., 2015). The latter will be the focus of this section. Composition and concentration of anthropogenic PM According to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) website, www.airnow.gov, anthropogenic sources of PM2.5 (considered fine particles) are generally produced from all types of combustion including motor vehicles, power plants, and residential heating. Human-produced PM10 (considered coarse dust particles) are associated with airborne residue from rock and mineral processing operations like the mining and transport of coal. In the urban setting, concentrations of PM emissions tend to spike during the morning and evening rush hours when modes of transportation reach their zenith (Fuzzi et al., 2016). The combustion of diesel fuel and its byproducts mixing with exhaust gas is a major contributor of sulfur (SO2 SO3) emissions into the atmosphere (Merkisz et al., 2002). sulfuric oxides and heavy metals such as Pb, Ni, Zn, and Cu are known to be primary sources of PM2.5 in a region of Finland where copper, nickel, and industrial fertilizers are produced (Eeva et al., 1998). In their 2005 global update, the World Health Organization published a PM2.5 exposure guideline of 25 ?g/m3/d and a guideline of 50 ?g/m3/d of PM10. PM impacts on fauna Airborne heavy metal pollution from an industrial copper and nickel smelter affected populations of lichens, mosses, pine trees, and the bird species Parus major L. (P. major) in the coniferous forests of southwest Finland. The study found a significant reduction in the density of green caterpillars and sawfly larvae, the birds primary food source, nearest the smelter. This set off a chain reaction within the P. major population as their characteristic bright yellow plumage began to fade. Dulling of plumage led to increased competition for brightly colored mates and consequently produced faded coloring in the nestlings. In addition to disruptions to the mating/offspring cycles, male-male competition, battles for social dominance, and the decreased ability to use crypticism in avoiding predators may be attributed to PM pollution. Conditions slowly improved as radial distance from the smelter increased (Eeva et al., 1998). PM pollution studies carried out on mice and metropolitan transportation emissions have produced startling results in the area of reproductive cycles. As Carre et al. writes, Two studies were carried out on mice in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil, which has a high level of air pollution. Mohallem et al. found a significant reduction in the number of newborns per mouse and a significant increase in the embryo implantation failure rate in female mice exposed as newborns for 3 months to the city polluted air and then mated with non-exposed males as adults (Carr?Ã © et al., 2017, p.2). The other study in Sao Paulo was conducted by Veras et al. They found, in adult mice exposed to urban traffic pollution (PM2.5) compared to mice exposed to filtered air, significantly more time was needed to mate, decreased number of pregnant females as a percentage of total number of females, and an increased occurrence of spontaneous abortion (Carre et al., 2017). The pollution pathology is a bit unclear but the work of Maluf et al. may shed some light in this case. Carre writes of their work, they [Maluf et al.] did observe a significant effect of PM2.5 exposure on the cell lineage allocation at the blastocyst stage between inner cell mass (ICM i.e. cells participating in the ontogeny of the future fetus) and trophectoderm (TE i.e. cells participating in the ontogeny of the future placenta) (2017, p. 5). Cells in ICM were greatly decreased and cells in TE greatly increased in the mice exposed to urban automobile pollution. The opposite is expected for healthy pregnancy. Impacts on the climate system Light absorbing PM has been identified as a major climate warming agent, second only to carbon dioxide (Bond et al., 2013; IPCC, 2013). Carbon-rich soot particles from industrial and residential combustion have been shown to increase warm and mixed-phase cloud development (and therefore drizzle and rain development) and negatively modify the ability of clouds to reflect incoming solar radiation back into space. These dark colored aerosols transfer solar radiation into the atmosphere increasing its thermal energy and gather in concentrations dense enough to produce an apparent dimming effect of the suns visible light (Fuzzi et al., 2015). Tropospheric Ozone (O3) Pollution What is Tropospheric Ozone? While it is a naturally occurring greenhouse gas with dense concentrations located in the Earths Stratosphere, the focus of this section will be the ozone appearing in the lower Troposphere of our atmosphere. Ozone is most commonly emitted from automobile exhaust and is the main component of smog. Other sources of tropospheric ozone include biomass burning, chemical manufacturing, and fossil fuel combustion (Logan, 1983). Tropospheric ozone formation is the result of complex chemical reactions between nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons, and carbon monoxide and is driven by exposure to sunlight. It forms most frequently on the sunny, hot days of summer when the sinking air of high pressure prevents atmospheric mixing (Mauzerall and Wang, 2001). According to its website, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has recently set new, strict standards for ozone exposure to not exceed 0.070 ppm average per 8-hour period. This is the second standards revision since 1997. On crop yields Most crops around the world are grown in the late-spring through summer months. As ozone concentration peaks during this time, it is more reason to consider crop damage by O3. Studies conducted in the United States and Europe are progressing our understanding of the physiological mechanisms and effects of ozone pollution on crops. In both studies, a variety of common crops including beans and wheat were grown in open-top chambers to allow for control and monitor of O3 levels. In the US, the results were varied based on the plant tested. According to Heck, soybean yields decreased by 40% when exposed to O3 concentrations of 70-90 ppb. However, broccoli yields appeared unaffected when exposed to 63 ppb of O3 (Heck, 1989). This seemed to indicate different crops have ranging levels of natural sensitivities to O3 exposure. The times of day when experiments were being conducted were of special note as 8:00am-8:00pm is when the leaf stomata remain open and gas exchange between the atmosphere and crops is maximized (Lee and Hogsett, 1999). In Europe, studies included crops such as barley, beans, wheat, and even grazing pasture and exposure methods were the same as previous studies. A cumulative reduction in crop yields was observed over the exposure threshold of 30-40 ppb per hour during daylight hours (Fuhrer, 1994). It was noted that environmental factors tend to play a role in O3 uptake in sensitive plants including soil moisture, temperature, and vapor pressure deficit (Grunhage et al., 2001). At the time of publication, Mauzerall and Wang report no Asian government had yet to undertake an organized effort to study the effects of O3 concentrations on crops (2001). On temperate forests Aerodynamically speaking, forests are rough terrestrial surfaces where large amounts of mass, heat, and atmospheric gases exchange by frictional drag (Fowler et al., 1999). These take place by an order of magnitude or more than over lands covered in grasses. With such concentrations of O3 potentially harming crops which tend to be short in stature, it is valid to wonder if the taller, more exposed trees of the worlds forests are also susceptible. According to Lapinski et al., in the mountains near Los Angeles, millions of ponderosa pines have been severely damaged by ozone pollution (361). Just as in the crops studies, it seems degree of O3 effects on trees depend on the sensitivity of each species. The free-air O3 exposure experiments conducted by Matyssek et al. showed a higher level of ozone sensitivity in pioneer trees than in climax species, although variations may exist within different genotypes of the same species (2010). In Open-top chambers where the concentrations of O3 are controlled and monitored, there is noticeable impact in the trees of the temperate forest (Skarby et al., 1998). In their study, Karenlampi and Skarby used an O3 concentration of 40 ppb because it has become a benchmark in developing a dose-effect relationship in biomass yield (1996). Elevated ozone levels reduce the supply of carbohydrates to roots reducing their biomass, (Bytnerowicz et al. 441). Grulke noted a similar danger to that of the crop studies in that toxic levels of O3 exposure directly impair stomatal function diminishing regulation of water loss in trees (2010). If current trends in ozone formation and concentration continue, Fowler et al. predict nearly half of the worlds forests will be exposed to phytotoxic levels of O3 by the year 2100 (1999). More study is needed to more fully establish the links between biotic infections and climatic factors and O3 uptake and defense in conifers. On boreal forests and possible mitigation A team of Finnish researchers tested two native European species of aspen trees and eight hybrid clones and their response to ozone exposure. These trees are typically found in the boreal and temperate seasonal forests or northern and central Europe and central Russia. Free-oxygen generated the ozone compound used in testing. Fumigation of trees in the field ran 24 hours a day except in very high or very low winds, in heavy rain, or if the ambient ozone concentration was greater than 10 ppb. Two hybrid aspen species experienced decreased leaf-level net photosynthesis by 40% early in the growing season as a result of elevated ozone exposure. The hybrid clones were the most ozone-tolerant. Researchers suggest cross-breeding ozone sensitive species with tolerant clones as a way to mitigate O3 damage in the boreal and temperate forest tree population. Researchers found no changes in total biomass as a result of ozone exposure in either native or hybrid aspens ( et al., 2007). On pollinators A team of researchers at the University of Virginia used the behaviors of bees combined with historical ozone data to model how air pollution could be impacting floral pollination. Computer simulations run with this data modeled a sharp decrease in the distance floral scents travel compared to the 1840s (Mitchell, 2008). Under historic conditions, researchers found only 20% of scents would have been altered by air pollution and could have been picked up by pollinators for kilometers around (Fuentes et al., 2008). Modeling the conditions of many of todays urban centers where air pollution consisting of hydroxyl radicals, nitrate radicals, and ozone can reach concentrations of 120 ppb by volume, Fuentes et al. report a meager 25% of floral scents would survive past 300 meters downwind. This is likely impacting bees ability to find and pollinate flowers as they use both sight and scent during daylight hours to pollinate. Moths, however, are expected to be most negatively affected as the y only use scent because they are nighttime pollinators (Fuentes et al., 2008). Carbon Monoxide (CO) Pollution Connection to climate change A survey of available literature indicates there is a connection between carbon monoxide and climate change (Ramanathan and Feng, 2009). While not a greenhouse gas, CO is considered a chemical precursor and a secondary climate forcing agent (AMS, 2016). In the late 70s, Weng et al. were the first to discover the roles methane and nitrous oxide played as greenhouse gases (1976). Carbon monoxide chemically reacts in the atmosphere with methane and other trace gases (AMS, 2016). This increases lower tropospheric ozone which is a primary warming agent of the lower atmosphere. Air pollution like CO and nitrous oxides are important contributors to global warming due to these atmospheric interactions (Fishman et al., 1980). Sources of carbon monoxide include biomass and fossil fuel combustion (AMS, 2016). On animals Carbon monoxide is known to bind to hemoglobin cells in blood. Hemoglobin is responsible for carrying oxygen in the body via red blood cells. If hemoglobin is carrying carbon monoxide, it cant carry oxygen through the the bloodstream which can stress the heart and cause headaches (Lapinski et al. 360). Animals can be affected by air pollution in the same way humans can. Animals can suffer from such symptoms as lung and eye irritation, cancer, bronchitis and , at high levels, even death (Lapinisk et al. 361).
Posted by Maurice Hightower at 5:46 PM
Saturday, May 30, 2020
APPLYING TO DENTAL SCHOOL CHAPTER 2 A s you prepare to apply to dental school, you will find it helpful to become acquainted with the usual educational curriculum, typical admissions requirements, and the application process. This chapter offers essential information about these topics, organized into four sections: The Dental School Program provides an overview of the basic educational curriculum at most schools, recognizing that each dental school has its own mission and distinguishing features; Qualifying for Dental school reviews the typical numbers of students involved in applying to and attending dental schools and summarizes general admission requirements; The Application Process describes the steps of applying to dental school; and Special Admissions Topics addresses the special topics of advanced standing and transferring, combined degree programs, and admissions for international students. THE DENTAL SCHOOL PROGRAM A common goal of all dental school programs is to produc e graduates who are: ? Competently educated in the basic biological and clinical sciences. ? Capable of providing quality dental care to all segments of the population. Committed to high moral and professional standards in their service to the public. The traditional dental school program requires four academic years of study, often organized as described below. Since there is wide variation in the focus and organization of the curricula of dental schools, the schoolsÃ¢â¬â¢ descriptions in Part II of this guide show the specifics of courses of study that wonÃ¢â¬â¢t be covered here. ? Years One and Two Students generally spend the major part of the first two years studying the biological sciences to learn about the structure and function of the human body and its diseases. Students also receive instruction about basic sciences such as human anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, microbiology, and harmacology and dentally oriented biological sciences such as oral anatomy, oral patholo gy, and oral histology. In many dental schools, first and second year students learn about providing health care to diverse populations. They also learn the basic principles of oral diagnosis and treatment and begin mastery of dental treatment procedures through practice on models of the mouth and teeth. In many programs, students begin interacting with patients and provide basic oral heath care. ? Years Three and Four The focus of the final two years of dental school generally concentrates on clinical study. Clinical training, which is broad in scope, is designed to provide competence in the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of oral diseases and disorders. Students apply basic principles and techniques involved in oral diagnosis, treatment planning, restorative dentistry, periodontics, oral surgery, orthodontics, pediatric dentistry, prosthodontics, endodontics, and other types of treatment through direct patient care. They learn to attend to chronically ill, disabled, specia l care, and geriatric patients and children. In addition, 13 ADEA OFFICIAL GUIDE TO DENTAL SCHOOLS dental schools provide instruction in practice management and in working effectively with allied dental personnel to provide dental care. During these two years, students may rotate through various clinics of the dental school to treat patients under the supervision of clinical instructors. They often have an opportunity to acquire additional clinical experience in hospitals and other off-campus, community settings. These experiences give students an appreciation for the team approach to health care delivery through their association with other health professionals and health professions students. As dental school curricula are designed to meet the anticipated needs of the public, every school continues to modify its curriculum to achieve a better correlation between the basic and clinical sciences. In clinical training, there is increased emphasis on providing comprehensive patient careÃ¢â¬âa method of training that permits a student to meet all the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s needs within the studentÃ¢â¬â¢s existing levels of competence. Widespread efforts also are being made to integrate new subject matter into the curriculum and to allow students free time for elective study, participation in research, and community service. The D. M. D. and the D. D. S. re equivalent degrees that are awarded to dental students upon completion of the same types of programs. QUALIFYING FOR DENTAL SCHOOL At least 59 U. S. and ten Canadian dental schools will be accepting applications to the first year of their Doctor of Dental Medicine (D. M. D. ) or Doctor of Dental Surgery (D. D. S. ) programs in 2011Ã¢â¬â12. The D. M. D. and the D. D. S. are equivalent degrees that are awarded to dental students upon completion of the same types of programs. ? Numbers of Applicants and Enrollees More than 19,000 students participated in D. M. D. and D. D. S. programs in the United States in 2008-09; of those, 4,794 were enrolled as first-year students. Of the 12,178 individuals who applied for admission, 39% were enrolled. Women comprised 47% of the applicants and 44% of the enrollees in 2008. Black/African Americans, Hispanic/Latinos, and Native Americans comprised 11. 8% of the applicants and 12. 3% of the enrollees in 2008. These underrepresented minority figures are expected to increase in the future. In Canada, approximately 1,598 students were enrolled in predoctoral dental school programs in 2008-09. Of these 454 were first-year students. See Table 2-1 for a comparison of the number of dental school applicants to the number enrolled for the 2008Ã¢â¬â09 academic year. ? General Admission Requirements Dental schools consider many factors when deciding which applicants to accept into their programs. Utilizing Ã¢â¬Å"wholeÃ¢â¬ application review, admissions committees assess biographical and academic information provided by the applicant and by the under graduate and graduate schools the applicant attended. These committees generally also assess the applicantÃ¢â¬â¢s results from the Dental Admission Test (DAT), grade point average (GPA), additional information provided in the application, letters of evaluation, and interviews. All U. S. dental schools require students to take the DAT (all Canadian dental schools require students to take the Canadian Dental Aptitude Test), but other admission requirements vary from school to school. For example, differences may exist in the areas of undergraduate courses required, interview policies, and state residency requirements. Each schoolÃ¢â¬â¢s individual requirements are specified in Part II of this guide. TABLE 2-1. TOTAL U. S. DENTAL SCHOOL APPLICANTS AND FIRST-YEAR ENROLLEES, FOR CLASS ENTERING FALL 2008 Total* Male/Female White African Hispanic/ Native American/ Asian/Pacific Other Not American Latino Alaska Native Islander Reported Applicants Enrollees 12,178 4,794 6,502/5,663 2, 673/2,120 6,747 2,832 734 267 633 279 77 41 2,962 1,056 742 231 283 88 *Sum of applicants and enrollees by gender do not add to total number of applicants and enrollees because a small number did not provide this information. Source: American Dental Education Association, Applicant Analysis for the 2008 Entering Class. 14 CHAPTER 2 APPLYING TO DENTAL SCHOOL Although most schools state that they require a minimum of at least two years (60 semester hours) or three years (90 semester hours) of undergraduate education (also called Ã¢â¬Å"predental educationÃ¢â¬ ), the majority of students admitted to dental school will have earned a bachelorÃ¢â¬â¢s degree prior to the start of dental school. Of all U. S. students entering dental schools, more than 90% have completed four or more years of college, less than 1% have just the minimum two-year requirement, and about 8% have graduate training. Individuals pursuing dental careers should take certain science courses. However, you do not have to be a science major to gain admission to a dental school and successfully complete the program. As shown in Table 2-2, most dental students are science majors as undergraduates, but many major in fields not related to science. ? ADEA Admissions Guidelines As the primary dental education association in North America, the American Dental Education Association (ADEA) has developed guidelines addressing dental school admission. Although adhering to the guidelines is voluntary, member institutions (which include all U. S. and Canadian dental schools) are encouraged to follow these guidelines as they consider and accept applicants to their schools. The guidelines are as follows: ? ADEA encourages dental schools to accept students from all walks of life who, on the basis of past and predicted performance, appear qualified to become competent dental professionals. ? ADEA further encourages dental schools to use, whenever possible as part of the admissions process, a consistent ly applied assessment of an applicantÃ¢â¬â¢s nonacademic attributes. ? ADEA urges dental schools to grant final acceptance only to students who have completed at least two years of postsecondary education and have taken the DAT. ? ADEA further suggests that dental schools encourage applicants to earn their baccalaureate degrees before entering dental school. The recommendation for at least two years of postsecondary education may be waived for students accepted at a dental school under an early selection program. Under these programs, there is a formal and published agreement between a dental school and an undergraduate institution that gives a student, at some time before the completion of the predental curriculum, guaranteed admisTABLE 2-2. UNDERGRADUATE MAJORS OF DENTAL SCHOOL APPLICANTS AND ENROLLEES, sion to the dental school. Admission is 2008-09 dependent upon successful completion of Predental Major Percent of Percent of Percent Rate the dental schoolÃ¢â¬â¢s entrance requirements Applicants Enrollees of Enrollment and normal application procedures. ADEA recommends that dental schools notify applicants, either orally or in writing, of provisional or final acceptance on or after December 1 of the academic year prior to the academic year of matriculation. ? ADEA further recommends that: Ã¢â¬â Applicants accepted on or after December 1 be given at least 45 days to reply to the offer. Ã¢â¬â Applicants who have been accepted on or after January 1, the minimum response period should be 30 days. Biological Science Engineering Math/Computer Science Social Sciences Business Education Language/Humanities/Arts Predental Other Major No Major/Major Not Reported 50. 5% 14. 6% 2. 4% 1. 1% 1. 2% 4. 3% . 7% 3. 8% 14. 3% 4. 0% 3. 2% 51. 5% 15. 2% 2. 7% 1. 1% 1. 2% 4. 5% . 6% 3. 8% 13. 0% 4. % 2. 4% 40. 1% 41. 0% 44. 3% 42. 2% 38. 9% 41. 5% 34. 5% 39. 6% 35. 7% 39. 1% 14. 3% Chemistry/Physical Science Source: American Dental Education Association, Applicant A nalysis Report for the 2008 Entering Class 15 ADEA OFFICIAL GUIDE TO DENTAL SCHOOLS Ã¢â¬â Applicants accepted on or after February 1, the minimum waiting period can be reduced to 15 days. ? ADEA believes that dental schools are justified in asking for an immediate response from applicants accepted after July 15, or two weeks before the beginning of the academic year, whichever comes first. ? Response periods are subject to change. Be sure to consult schoolsÃ¢â¬â¢ websites for any updates. Finally, ADEA recommends that dental schools encourage a close working relationship between their admissions and financial aid staff in order to counsel dental students early and effectively on their financial obligations. THE APPLICATION PROCESS The dental school application process involves a number of procedures but is easily followed once you learn what is needed. This section explains how the application process works in general, recognizing that specific details may vary somewhat from sc hool to school. Once you have a basic framework, you will find it easier to adapt to these variations. There are three main steps in the application process: ? Take the DAT (for Canadian schools, the Canadian Dental Aptitude Test). In the vast majority of cases, submit a centralized application form to ADEAÃ¢â¬â¢s Associated American Dental Schools Application Service (AADSAS). (As of November 1, 2009, three of the 59 U. S. dental schools do not participate in AADSAS. ) ? Acquire and submit institution-specific materials. Following is a brief description of each step and whom you should contact for more information. This section concludes with advice on how to effectively manage the timing of the application process. Always remember that the application process for an individual school may vary from this general information; see Part II of this guide for specific application requirements by school. Not sure what to write about in your essay? Consider these ideas. The AADSAS app lication requires a personal essay on why you wish to pursue a dental education. Where do you start? Put yourself in the shoes of the admissions committees that read application essays. They are looking for individuals who are motivated, academically prepared, articulate, socially conscious, and knowledgeable about the profession. What can you tell admissions committees about yourself that will make you stand out? Here are some possible topics for your essay: ? How did you become interested in studying dentistry? Be honest! If you knew you wanted to be a dentist from the age of six, thatÃ¢â¬â¢s fine, but if you didnÃ¢â¬â¢t, thatÃ¢â¬â¢s all right too. Explain how you discovered dentistry as a career possibility and what you have done to research the career. Admissions committees are looking for how well thoughtout your career plans are. ? What have you done to demonstrate your interest in dentistry? Have you observed or worked in dental offices? Have you talked to practicing dentists? How good of an understanding do you have of general dental practice? How do you envision yourself utilizing your dental degree? ? What have you done to demonstrate your commitment to helping others? ? Do you have any special talents or leadership skills that could be transferable to the practice of dentistry? Have you benefited from any special experiences such as participating in research, internships, etc.? ? Did you have to work to pay for your education? How has that made you a stronger applicant? ? Have you had to overcome hardships or obstacles to get where you are today? How has this influenced your motivation for advanced education? ? Take the DAT All U. S. dental schools require applicants to take the Dental Admission Test (DAT). The DAT is designed to measure general academic ability, comprehension of scientific information, and perceptual ability. This half-day, multiple-choice exam is conducted by the American Dental Association (ADA). It is a computer-base d test given at Prometric Testing Centers in various sites around the country on almost any day of the year. Candidates for the DAT should have completed prerequisite courses in biology, general chemistry, and organic chemistry. These tips are provided by Anne Wells, Ed. D. , ADEA Associate Executive Director for the Division of Education Pathways and former Associate Dean for Admissions, University of Louisville School of Dentistry. 16 CHAPTER 2 APPLYING TO DENTAL SCHOOL STUDENT PROFILE What are you doing now? IÃ¢â¬â¢m in my fourth year of dental school and working in the schoolÃ¢â¬â¢s clinic. We get a phenomenal amount of clinical experience at Baylor. I think you need to be competent in a wide range of dental procedures because there are a lot of people with needs who wonÃ¢â¬â¢t be able to go to a specialist. IÃ¢â¬â¢ve also done several externships over the summer in dental clinics in Alaska and underserved areas in Texas. What are your short-term and long-term goals? After dental school, IÃ¢â¬â¢m going to move with my family to Alaska to practice. When you first get into dentistry you hear a lot about the oral health care issues in Alaska. I did an externship with the Indian Health Service (IHS) where I visited an island called Mekuryok and saw them first-hand. I didnÃ¢â¬â¢t choose dentistry solely for financial reasons. I want to make sure that the investment I make in my education and talents are helping people with access to care issues. At the end of your third and fourth years you start to realize how many options are available to dental graduates. I think more people would become interested in the profession if they knew about them. In the long-term, IÃ¢â¬â¢d like to try to open a dental school in Alaska to help address the access to care issues. Advice to applicants and first-years. People say applying is a game. You have to figure out what the school is looking for and be that person. But just be yourself. YouÃ¢â¬â¢re often at dental school more than youÃ¢â¬â¢re at home. YouÃ¢â¬â¢ll excel in a dental school that fits your personality. My top choice actually became my last choice during the interview process. I ended up choosing the school that was looking for the type of person that I felt comfortable being. First-year students may be overwhelmed with the coursework. There are a lot of number one students at dental school who havenÃ¢â¬â¢t gotten less than an A since third grade. Students end up getting some low grades because of the rigorous academic demands. You have to overcome that and pick your battles. If you have 13 exams in one week you canÃ¢â¬â¢t learn all of the material. I chose to learn what I needed to learn to be a good competent dentist. What do you view as the most interesting issue in dentistry? The Dental Health Aide Therapist (DHAT) and access to care issue in Alaska. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s easy for people to be opposed to a program they donÃ¢â¬â¢t know much about, but when you go up there and see the actual oral health care needs you understand it better. The programs arenÃ¢â¬â¢t perfect, but the concern is competent care for the patient. I canÃ¢â¬â¢t say that I am entirely in favor of the DHAT program, but I definitely better understand the basis for its creation. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s better to get some treatment than no treatment. What is the last good book you read? I recently read Mountains Beyond Mountains: Healing the World: The Quest of Dr. Paul Farmer by Tracy Kidder. It follows the life of a physician who dedicates his time to treating underserved populations in Haiti and Peru. His story shows there is more to treating patients than money and prestige. I would recommend it to any health professional. What to you do for balance in your life? IÃ¢â¬â¢m a very social person and like to be active. I play volleyball with a group once a week and basketball on Saturday mornings. Any time outside of that is spent with my family. Are you married/partnered/sin gle? Any children? IÃ¢â¬â¢m married and have two children, a two year old son and four year old daughter. They definitely donÃ¢â¬â¢t make dental school easy, but they make it worth it. ADAM WEAVER FOURTH-YEAR DENTAL STUDENT BAYLOR COLLEGE OF DENTISTRY HOMETOWN: EL PASO, TEXAS Why Dentistry? There were a few reasons I chose dentistry. I actually decided when I was 14 that I wanted to be a dentist. My friendÃ¢â¬â¢s dad was an endodontist. I saw that the profession offered him a lot of time to spend with his family, and I wanted to make sure that I would some day be available for my own family and able to take care of them. IÃ¢â¬â¢m also very involved in my church and dentistry would allow me the ability to serve and give back to the community. Finally, I knew I loved the sciences, working with my hands, and working with people. Advanced level biology and physics are not required. Most applicants complete two or more years of college before taking the exam. ADEA strongly enc ourages applicants to prepare for the DAT by reviewing the content of the examination and basic principles of biology and chemistry and taking practice tests. The DAT CandidateÃ¢â¬â¢s Guide, the online tutorial, and the application and preparation materials are available in the DAT section of the ADA website at www. ada. org/prof/ed/testing/dat/index. asp. The ADA suggests that applicants take the DAT well in advance of their intended dental school enrollment and at least one year prior to when they hope to enter dental school. See Table 3-3 in this guide for an overview of individual schoolsÃ¢â¬â¢ requirements regarding the DAT, including the average scores of enrollees and timelines that will help you schedule the DAT. You should also note that the DAT can be taken a maximum of three times. Applicants who wish to take the DAT more than three times must apply for special permission to take the test again. For details, see the DAT section of the ADA website. The DAT consis ts of multiple-choice test items presented in the English language and requires four hours and 15 minutes for administration. The four separate parts of the exam cover: ? Natural sciences (biology, general chemistry, and organic chemistry) ? Perceptual ability (two- and three-dimensional problem solving) ? Reading comprehension (dental and basic sciences) ? Quantitative reasoning (mathematical problems in algebra, numerical calculations, conversions, etc. ) 17 ADEA OFFICIAL GUIDE TO DENTAL SCHOOLS Most dental schools view the DAT as one of many factors in evaluating candidates for admission. As a result, the emphasis schools place on different parts of the test varies. Candidates applying to take the DAT must submit application information to the DAT testing program from the DAT section of the ADA website. The fee is $205. After the application and fee payment are processed, the ADA notifies Prometric that the candidate is eligible for DAT testing. At the same time, the candidate will receive notification from the ADA including instructions on how to register with the Prometric Candidate Contact Center to arrange the day, time, and place to take the DAT at a Prometric Testing Center. A current listing of testing centers is at www. prometric. com/ADA/default. htm. The candidate is eligible to take the test for a 12-month period. If the candidate does not call, register, and take the exam during this period, he or she will have to submit another application and fee in order to take the exam later. Candidates may apply and retake the test up to three times, but they must submit a new application and fee for each re-examination, and the re-examination must be taken at least 90 days after the previous exam. Individuals with disabilities or special needs may request special arrangements for taking the DAT. For details, visit the Special Accommodations section of the Prometric website at www. prometric. com/TestTakers/FAQs/default. htm. The Canadian Dental A ssociation (CDA) and the Association of Canadian Faculties of Dentistry have developed the Dental Aptitude Test for applicants to Canadian dental schools. All Canadian dental schools require the test. For more information, contact the Dental Aptitude Test Program of the Canadian Dental Association (LÃ¢â¬â¢Association Dentaire Canadienne), 1815 Alta Vista Drive, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, K1G 3Y6; 615-523-7736; [emailprotected] ca, www. cda-adc. ca. Since many schools have a rolling admissions process and begin to admit highly qualified applicants as early as December 1, applicants are encouraged to submit their applications early. ? Submitting an AADSAS Application ADEAÃ¢â¬â¢s AADSAS (pronounced Ã¢â¬Å"add-sass,Ã¢â¬ the acronym for the Associated American Dental Schools Application Service) is a centralized application service sponsored and administered by ADEA. At least 56 of the 59 U. S. dental schools, including Puerto Rico, participate in AADSAS. One Canadian school also participates in AADSAS. The Application The ADEA AADSAS application is available online at www. adea. org. The online AADSAS application requires you to submit information: ? Biographical information ? Colleges/universities attended ? Coursework completed and planned prior to enrollment in dental school. ? DAT scores, if available ? Personal statement (essay)Ã¢â¬âa one-page essay in which you present yourself and your reasons for wanting to attend dental school ? Background informationÃ¢â¬âinformation about your personal background, including experiences related to the dental profession; extracurricular, volunteer, and community service experiences; honors, awards, and scholarships; and work and research experiences ? Dental school designationsÃ¢â¬âwhere you select the dental schools that you want to receive your application ? Official transcriptsÃ¢â¬âyou will also be required to submit an official transcript from each college or university you have attended to the A ADSAS Verification Department ? AADSAS also accepts and distributes letters of evaluation (sometimes called letters of recommendation) with your AADSAS application 18 CHAPTER 2 APPLYING TO DENTAL SCHOOL Submitting your ADEA AADSAS Application: Words of Advice Before you begin the application process: ? Meet with your health professions advisor to discuss the application process, including the timing of application submission and the DAT, services that may be provided by your advisor such as a Pre-Dental Committee Report or other application assistance, and potential dental schools to which you plan to apply. ? Consider the timing of the Dental Admissions Test (DAT). You may submit an ADEA AADSAS application before taking the DAT, but you should know that many schools consider you for admission only after they have received your DAT scores. However, you should also be aware that delaying the submission of an ADEA AADSAS application prior to taking the DAT can result in a late a pplication and can reduce your chances of being accepted for admission. ? Collect copies of all transcripts and have them at hand for your reference. ? Begin to line up individuals who will be providing letters of evaluation early. Be sure to plan around school vacations when faculty advisors may not be available. ? ADEA AADSAS staff strongly recommend that you submit your application well in advance of the deadlines of the schools to which you apply. ? Your application will ask you to indicate the names of individuals who will be providing letters of evaluation on your behalf. While ADEA AADSAS accepts letters in print format, it strongly recommends that letters be electronically submitted. Refer to the instructions for details about submitting letters of evaluation. ? The ADEA AADSAS application becomes available on or around May 15. Watch the ADEA website (www. adea. org) for the start date of the application cycle. After submitting the application: ? Be sure to check with the schools to which you are applying (and their individual entries in this guide) to find out what supplemental materials or fees are required. These must be submitted directly to the school, not to AADSAS. ? Log on to your ADEA AADSAS account to monitor the status of your pplication while it is being processed and after it has been sent to the dental schools. ? Update any changes of address or other contact information in your application at any time in the application process, even after your application has been sent to your designated schools. ? ADEA AADSAS does not retain application information from year to year. Individuals re-applying for admission to dental school must complete a new application each year, including providing new transcripts and letters of evaluation. For further information, visit the ADEA website at www. adea. org, and select the ADEA AADSAS link. Processing the application, including transcript verification, generally takes about one month. Remember tha t your ADEA AADSAS application is not considered complete until ADEA AADSAS receives your online application, fee payment, and official transcripts from every college and university attended. While completing the application ? When you set up your ADEA AADSAS account, you will identify a user name and password. Keep these in a safe yet accessible place. ? Be sure to read all application instructions before you start to fill out the application. ? Any time after you set up your account, you can go back into the application (using your user name and password) to add or change information up until the time you submit it for processing. ? Print the Transcript Matching Form from your application. Request that an official transcript from each college and university you have attended (include transferred coursework posted to later transcripts) be sent to ADEA AADSAS. The Transcript Matching Form must be attached by each collegeÃ¢â¬â¢s registrar to the official transcript and mailed by the registrar to ADEA AADSAS. Applications are not processed until all official transcripts are received. ? Remember that ADEA AADSAS accepts only official transcripts sent directly from the registrar. ADEA AADSAS does not accept student-issued transcripts. These recommendations were provided by Anne Wells, Ed. D. , and Ms. Chonte James of ADEA AADSAS. Submission Deadlines Applications may be submitted beginning on or around May 15. Each school has a specific application deadline date, which is noted in he online AADSAS application and in the individual school entries in Part II of this guide. Please note that these dates are subject to change; consult each dental schoolÃ¢â¬â¢s website for the most up-to-date information on deadline dates. Your completed application, transcripts, payment, and other required documents must be received by AADSAS no later than the stated deadline of the schools to which you are applying. Since many schools have a rolling admissions process and begin to admit highly qualified applicants as early as December 1, applicants are encouraged to submit their applications early. 19 ADEA OFFICIAL GUIDE TO DENTAL SCHOOLS Application Fees Check the AADSAS website for complete information about application fees. Payment may be by check, money order, or credit card (VISA, MasterCard, Discover, or American Express). All fees must be paid in U. S. currency drawn on a U. S. bank or the U. S. Postal Service. AADSAS has a fee reduction program for applicants with demonstrated financial hardship. Details may be obtained on the AADSAS website. AADSAS Schools The schools that use AADSAS are listed by state in Table 2-3. If you are applying only to the schools that do not participate in AADSAS, you should apply directly to those schools. Texas residents applying to Texas dental schools must utilize the Texas Medical and Dental Application Services (TMDSAS), www. utsystem. edu/tmdsas. Graduates of non-ADA accredited dental schools (i. e. nternatio nal dental school graduates) may be eligible for admission into advanced placement programs offered by many dental schools. International dental graduates may want to refer to ADEAÃ¢â¬â¢s Centralized Application for Advanced Placement International Dentists (ADEA CAAPID), located on the ADEA website (www. adea. org) for information about these programs and the application process. Please note that AADSAS serves as an information clearinghouse only. It does not influence any schoolÃ¢â¬â¢s evaluation or selection of applicants, nor does ADEA recommend applicants to dental schools or vice versa. ? Submit any required supplemental application materials Each school has its own policy regarding the payment of a separate application fee and the submission of additional application materials. These materials may include an institution-specific supplemental (or secondary) application form, documentation of dentistry shadowing experience, and official academic transcripts. Part II of t his guide briefly reviews each dental schoolÃ¢â¬â¢s application requirements. In addition, the ADEA AADSAS STUDENT PROFILE and fix the problem. I started to realize that my dad was right all along. What are you doing right now? IÃ¢â¬â¢m in a hospital residency program at Christiana Hospital. I actually met the Program Director Dr. Robert Arm through ADEA. At the time I wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t really thinking about residency programs, but he said to keep an open mind and that you receive great training. At Christiana itÃ¢â¬â¢s great to be part of an interdisciplinary team and interface with physicians. I get to be involved in community health aspects. I never do something two days in a row. I may be in a private health center where I see all the dental work I didnÃ¢â¬â¢t see in dental school or observe dental specialties and OR dentistry. IÃ¢â¬â¢m also a Vice President for the ADEA Council of Students, Residents, and Fellows. What are your short-term and long-term goals? I want to go on to a residency program in pediatric dentistry. IÃ¢â¬â¢d like to be in a hospital based practice working with children and patients with special needs and teaching. It can be difficult to address access to care issues in other practice situations. Advice to applicants and first-year students? For applicants, they want to know you know what youÃ¢â¬â¢re getting into. Before applying you should have done some shadowing and hopefully more than your own braces. Think about how to take the profession beyond what it is whether itÃ¢â¬â¢s working on access to care issues, in research, or developing ways to cure dental anxiety. For first-years, find a mentor. They never find you. I struggled with motivation and spun my wheels a lot. I have a lot of energy and wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t sure what to do with it. I needed someone to say why donÃ¢â¬â¢t you try this. Time management was huge. Every semester is packed to capacity. You think, Ã¢â¬Å"How can I do moreÃ¢â¬ and the next semes ter you do. You have to change your study habits. If you miss a couple days, you hate your life. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s hard to discipline yourself and it was exhausting, but there is a light at the end. What do you do for balance in your life? I do a lot of yoga and trained for a marathon. I also have friends outside of dental school. What is the last good book you read? I read books about travel since I canÃ¢â¬â¢t do a lot. I just read a great book on China. What do you view as the most interesting issue in dentistry? The dental professionÃ¢â¬â¢s place in healthcare and how to execute it so our profession remains valuable. The definition of access to care is so different depending upon where you are. Some cannot afford it, and some do not value it. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s important to have early education and a form of health care that takes care of basic needs. Dentistry needs to lead this because no one on the outside truly understands what we do and how we work. Are you married/partnered/singl e? Any children? Single MARIA CORDERO, D. M. D. GENERAL PRACTICE RESIDENT CHRISTIANA HOSPITAL Why did you choose dentistry? I spent time trying not to choose dentistry. My father is a dentist, but heÃ¢â¬â¢s given me a lot of leeway to find my own path. I always thought dentistry is what my dad did, and I wanted to do something different. But heÃ¢â¬â¢s always been so happy. Dentistry allows you to make a diagnosis, treat, 20 CHAPTER 2 APPLYING TO DENTAL SCHOOL TABLE 2-3. DENTAL SCHOOLS PARTICIPATING IN ADEA AADSAS (AS OF NOVEMBER 1, 2009) Alabama Arizona California University of Alabama at Birmingham School of Dentistry Arizona School of Dentistry and Oral Health Midwestern University College of Dental Medicine Loma Linda University School of Dentistry University of California, Los Angeles School of Dentistry University of California, San Francisco School of Dentistry University of the Pacific Arthur A. Dugoni School of Dentistry University of Southern California School of Dentistry Western University of Health Sciences College of Dental Medicine University of Colorado Denver School of Dental Medicine University of Connecticut School of Dental Medicine Nova Southeastern University College of Dental Medicine University of Florida College of Dentistry Southern Illinois University School of Dental Medicine University of Illinois at Chicago College of Dentistry Indiana University School of Dentistry University of Iowa College of Dentistry University of Kentucky College of Dentistry University of Louisville School of Dentistry Louisiana State University School of Dentistry University of Maryland Baltimore College of Dental Surgery Boston University Henry M. Goldman School of Dental Medicine Harvard School of Dental Medicine Tufts University School of Dental Medicine University of Detroit Mercy School of Dentistry University of Michigan School of Dentistry University of Minnesota School of Dentistry University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Dentistry Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Nova Scotia Nebraska Nevada New Jersey New York Creighton University School of Dentistry University of Nebraska Medical Center College of Dentistry University of Nevada, Las Vegas School of Dental Medicine University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey Columbia University College of Dental Medicine New York University College of Dentistry Stony Brook University School of Dental Medicine University at Buffalo School of Dental Medicine University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill School of Dentistry Case School of Dental Medicine The Ohio State University College of Dentistry University of Oklahoma College of Dentistry Oregon Health Science University School of Dentistry University of Pennsylvania School of Dental Medicine University of Pittsburgh School of Dental Medicine The Maurice H. Kornberg School of Dentistry, Temple University University of Puerto Rico School of Dental Medicine Medical University of South Carolina College of D ental Medicine Meharry Medical College School of Dentistry Baylor College of Dentistry University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston Dental Branch University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio Dental School Virginia Commonwealth University School of Dentistry University of Washington School of Dentistry West Virginia University School of Dentistry Marquette University School of Dentistry Dalhousie University Faculty of Dentistry Colorado Connecticut Florida Illinois Indiana Iowa Kentucky Louisiana Maryland Massachusetts North Carolina Ohio Oklahoma Oregon Pennsylvania District of Columbia Howard University College of Dentistry Puerto Rico South Carolina Tennessee Texas Michigan Minnesota Missouri Application website includes a chart that identifies the supplemental requirements for the participating schools. Note that this information is subject to change; consult dental schoolsÃ¢â¬â¢ websites for most up-to-date requirements. After you have submitted all of y our materials, the dental schools that wish to consider you for a place in the entering class will contact you for a visit to the campus. This visit will likely include an interview with the admissions committee, a tour of the campus and facilities, meetings with faculty and students, and other meetings and activities. When you visit a dental school, the admissions committee is evaluating you as a prospective student, while at the same time, you will have the opportunity to evaluate the dental school program and environment to determine if you think it would be a good fit for you and your goals. ? Manage the Timing of the Application Process The trick to managing the timing of the application process is summed up in two words: DONÃ¢â¬â¢T PROCRASTINATE! Most dental schools will fill a large percentage of their 2011 entering classes by December 2010. This means that even though schools have deadlines for completing all the application requirements that range from October 2010 to February 2011, it is not a good idea to wait until the last minute to take the DAT, submit the AADSAS application, or complete any supplemental materials requested by the schools to which you are applying. 21 ADEA OFFICIAL GUIDE TO DENTAL SCHOOLS YouTube for Dental Students Ã¢â¬â ADEA Video Mentors ADEA now gives a voice to dental students on YouTube. com. Through the creation of ADEA Video Mentors, a channel on YouTube. om, prospective dental students and current dental students can share their experience and offer advice. The site features dental students (allied, predoctoral, postdoctoral) discussing topics related to dental careers, dental education, and the application process. Dental students submit videos that answer the questions predental students most frequently ask: What made you decide to go into dentistry? How was your path to dental school unique? What surprises you most about dental school? What would you recommend students do to prepare their dental school applica tions? A second component of the site, AADSAS Answers, responds to timely questions about the AADSAS application process. This component is a separate channel on the ADEA Video Mentor site that answers questions regarding the AADSAS Application process. AADSAS is the centralized application service (sponsored by ADEA) used by 56 dental schools. Students are invited to submit their videos or visit the site to learn more about being a dental student and the application process. Your participation encourages todayÃ¢â¬â¢s high school and college students to become the health professionals of tomorrow. The videos are currently housed at www. youtube. com and can be accessed by viewing ADEAÃ¢â¬â¢s dedicated video mentoring channel, www. youtube. com/ADEAVideoMentors. The individual dental school information in Part II of this guide includes an admissions timetable for each schoolÃ¢â¬â¢s entering class. It is essential that you become familiar with the timetables for the school s to which you are applying and that you make plans to complete the admission application requirements on time. SPECIAL ADMISSIONS TOPICS For those of you interested in advanced standing and transferring, combined degree programs, and admission for international students, this section briefly addresses those areas. Part II of this guide provides some additional information on these topics for each dental school, but you should contact the dental schools you are considering for more details. ? Advanced Standing and Transferring Advanced standing means that a student is exempted from certain courses or is accepted as a second- or third-year student. Advanced standing is offered at the time of admission to students who have mastered some aspects of the dental school curriculum because of previous training. An individual who has a Ph. D. in one of the basic sciences, such as physiology, for example, may be exempted from taking the physiology course in dental school. Some schools may also grant advanced standing to students who have transferred from other U. S. or Canadian dental schools or who have graduated from international dental schools. In these cases, applicants may be allowed to enter as second- or third year-students. 22 CHAPTER 2 APPLYING TO DENTAL SCHOOL Each dental school has its own policy on advanced standing and transferring students; see the individual school entries in Part II of this guide. But it is important to be aware that most students do not obtain advanced standing and that very few students transfer from one school to another. ? Combined Degree Programs Many dental schools in the United States and Canada offer combined degree programs that give students the opportunity to obtain other degrees along with their D. D. S. or D. M. D. Degrees that may be combined with the dental degree include: ? A baccalaureate degree (B. A. or B. S. ) ? A masterÃ¢â¬â¢s degree (M. A. , M. S. , M. B. A. , or M. P. H. ) ? A doctorate (Ph. D. , M. D. , o r D. O. ) Numerous dental schools have formal combined baccalaureate and dental degree programs. Combined degree programs expand career options especially for those interested in careers in dental education, administration, and research. They may also shorten the length of training where specific agreements have been made between the dental school and its parent institution. The undergraduate and dental school portions of some combined degree programs take place at the same university, while other combined programs are the result of arrangements made between a dental school and other undergraduate institutions. Sometimes colleges will independently grant baccalaureate degrees to students who attended as undergraduates and did not finish their undergraduate education but did successfully complete some portion of their dental training. Many dental schools also sponsor combined graduate and dental degree programs. These programs, which usually take six to seven years to complete, are offered at the masters or doctoral level in subjects that include the basic sciences (biology, physiology, chemistry), public policy, medicine, and other areas. See Table 3-6 in Chapter 3 of this guide for a list of dental schools with combined degree programs. If you are interested in more information about combined degree programs, you should contact the schools directly. ? Admissions for International Students The term Ã¢â¬Å"international studentÃ¢â¬ refers to an individual who is a native of a foreign country and who plans to study in the United States or Canada on a student visa. Students who have permanent residency status in the United States are not considered international students; they have the same rights, responsibilities, and options as U. S. citizens applying for admission to dental school. Applicants who have completed coursework outside the United States or Canada (except through study abroad) should supply a copy of their transcripts, translated into En glish, plus a course-by-course evaluation of all transcripts. Application details for international applicants are contained in the ADEA AADSAS application. International applicants who are not graduates of international dental schools are considered for admission to most U. S. and Canadian dental schools. Each dental school has its own policies on admission requirements for international students. However, most dental schools require international students to complete all the application materials mandated for U. S. citizens and permanent residents. In addition, international students may be asked to take the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) or demonstrate English language proficiency. International students should expect to finance the entire cost of their dental education. ? International Dental Graduates Graduates of international (non-ADA accredited) dental schools may be eligible for admission into an advanced placement program. These programs provide an opport unity for dentists educated outside the U. S. and Canada to obtain an accredited degree that is recognized by state and provincial licensing officials. The ADEA Centralized Application 23 ADEA OFFICIAL GUIDE TO DENTAL SCHOOLS A Guide to Preparing for Dental School Maybe you already know that you have a strong interest in dentistry but donÃ¢â¬â¢t know where to start. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s never too early to begin preparing. Below are a few guidelines to help you plan your coursework and get in touch with mentors and other professionals who can help you along the way. Keep in mind this guide offers a general timeline for preparation. Many successful dental students have been non-science majors or pursued other careers before deciding dentistry was right for them. In fact, the guide can be used at any point in your academic or professional career. It is also helpful if you are not completely sure that dentistry is where you want to focus your energy and will help you decide if attending den tal school is a commitment you want to make. FOR HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS ? Take science and math classes, including chemistry, biology, and algebra. If available, take Advanced Placement (AP) level coursework. ? Talk to people in the field. Call local dentists or contact the dental society in your city or town to find people who can help answer your questions. Contact your local dental society through the American Dental AssociationÃ¢â¬â¢s (ADA) website at www. ada. org/ada/organizations/ local. asp. Information on the ADAÃ¢â¬â¢s mentoring program can also be found at www. ada. org/public/careers/beadentist/ mentoring. asp. ? Check out ExploreHealthCareers. org (EHC) Ã¢â¬Å"Meet a DentistÃ¢â¬ page at www. explorehealthcareers. org/en/Career. 1. aspx. COLLEGE YEAR 1 Fall semester ? Meet with prehealth advisor and plan coursework ? If your school doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t have a prehealth advisor, look into obtaining a copy of the ADEA Official Guide to Dental Schools to review the den tal schoolsÃ¢â¬â¢ requirements. Although most schools require a minimum of one year of biology, general and inorganic chemistry, organic chemistry, and physics, specific requirements vary from school to school. ? Complete required predental coursework Spring semester ? Think about volunteer or employment opportunities in dentistry for the summer like shadowing a dentist or volunteering in a community health clinic. ? Complete required coursework and register for the fall semester. ? Research prehealth enrichment programs at Explore Health Careers: www. explorehealthcareers. Also look into the Summer Medical and Dental Education program for college freshman and sophomores at www. smdep. org. Prehealth enrichment programs can help you decide if a career in dentistry is a good fit and help you prepare for the application process. Summer ? Complete an internship or volunteer program ? If necessary attend summer school Service for Advanced Placement for International Dentists (ADEA CAAPID) provides an online portal for applicants to submit materials one time and direct them to multiple institutions. Information about these programs, their admission requirements and the application process can be found at www. adea. org. 24 COLLEGE YEAR 2 Fall semester ? Schedule a time to meet with your prehealth advisor ? Attend prehealth activities ? Join your schoolÃ¢â¬â¢s predental society if one is available ? Complete required coursework ? Explore community service opportunities through your school (doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t necessarily need to be health-related). If possible, continue activities throughout undergraduate career. COLLEGE YEAR 3 Fall semester ? Meet with prehealth advisor to make sure coursework completion is on schedule ? Discuss dental schools ? Complete coursework and register for spring semester ? Visit ADEAÃ¢â¬â¢s website at www. adea. org to learn about applying to dental school ? Place order for the ADEA Official Guide to Dental Schools ? Research sc hools COLLEGE YEAR 4 Fall semester ? Meet with prehealth advisor and complete coursework ? Attend interviews with schools ? Notification of acceptances begins December 1 Spring semester ? Apply for federal financial aid Summer ? Relax and get ready for the first semester of dental school! ? Attend schoolÃ¢â¬â¢s open houses or events ? Prepare to relocate if necessary Spring semester ? Look into paid or volunteer dentalrelated research opportunities ? Complete second semester coursework and register for the fall Spring semester ? Review each dental schoolÃ¢â¬â¢s required documents early in the semester ? Identify individuals to write letters of recommendation ? Take the DAT late spring or early summer ? Prepare to submit AADSAS application. Applications become available on or around May 15 ? Complete coursework and register for the fall ? Schedule a volunteer or paid dental related activity Summer ? Complete a summer research or volunteer dental-related program ? If necessary attend summer school ? DAT preparation Summer ? Take the DAT if you have not done so already ? Prepare for school interviews in the fall ? Budget time and finances appropriately to attend interviews ? Participate in volunteer or paid opportunity ? If necessary attend summer school 25
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